Revolutions

 

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s RevolutionsAtatürk’s Principles (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri) are a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic major drastic progressive changes that were designed to modernize the new Republic of Turkey into a democratic, social, constitutional and secular nation-state. They were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal.

The depth, breadth and impacts of these changes and the progressivism in them  elevate them to a level importance that these changes deserve to be categorized as revolutions.

One may think that  some accomplishments given in the list below , such as introduction of  Commercial Law,  do not seem to be major accomplishments. However, a closer look into these reveals that  since they are introduced first time and had no predecessors before and the progressive impact  they caused are sufficient enough to classify them as revolutions.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Revolutions

  • Abolition of the office of the Ottoman Sultan, November 1, 1922
  • Abolition of the capitulations with the Treaty of Lausanne, 24 July 1923
  • Proclamation of the Republic – Republic of Turkey, October 29, 1923
  • Abolition of the office of Caliphate held by the Ottoman Caliphate, March 3, 1924
  • The unification of education, March 3, 1924
  • The Weekend Act (Workweek: Monday to Friday become work days), 1924
  • Change of headgear and dress, November 25, 1925
  • Establishment of model farms; Atatürk Orman Çiftliği, 1925
  • The International Time and Calendar System (Gregorian calendar, Time zone), 1925
  • Introduction of the new penal law modeled after the Italian penal code, March 1, 1926
  • Introduction of the new civil code modeled after the Swiss civil code, October 4, 1926
  • The Obligation Law, 1926
  • The Commercial Law, 1926
  • The System of Measures (International System of Units), 1926
  • Establishment of the Turkish State Railways, 1927
  • Adoption of the new Turkish alphabet, November 1, 1928
  • Establishment of Turkish Education Association for supporting children in financial need and contributing to the educational life, January 1, 1928
  • Establishment of Turkish Language Association for regulating the Turkish language, 1931
  • Establishment of Turkish Historical Society for research on history, 1932
  • Regulation of the university education, May 31, 1933
  • First Five Year Development Plan (Planned economy), 1933
  • Second Five Year Development Plan (Planned economy), 1933
  • Law on family names, June 21, 1934
  • Abolition of titles and by-names, November 26, 1934
  • Full political rights to women, to vote and be elected, December 5, 1934
  • The inclusion of the principle of laïcité in the constitution, February 5, 1937


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