117-Eventually I took recourse to forming a party myself under the name of the “Party for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia.”

Eventually I took recourse to forming a party myself under the name of the “Party for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia.”

I would now like to tell you something about the situation that had arisen within the Grand National Assembly itself.

You are aware that the committees of the Union for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia were among the electors of the second class during the elections for the first National Assembly. In these circumstances, it might be said that the Assembly, taken as a whole, had the character of a political party which had developed from the Union for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Ru melia; and this actually was so at first. The chief aim of the Assembly in corpore served as the basis of the chief aim of the union. You know that the principles put forward at the Erzerum and Sivas Congresses, after having received the approval of the last Chamber of Deputies in Constantinople, had been combined und united into a whole under the title of the “National Pact.” These principles having also been adopted by the Grand National Assembly, we were now working within its compass to achieve a peace which would secure the in tegrity of the country and the independence of the nation. In pro portion, however, as time advanced, difficulties began to crop up regarding the organisation and aim of the common struggle. Votes were divided, even on the simplest questions, and the work of the Assembly was condemned to futility. To remedy this state of affairs some people took the initiative in the middle of the year 1921 in forming certain organisations. All these efforts were made to render regular debates possible and to reach positive results by firmly uniting the votes on questions which formed the subject of the dis cussion.

I have had an opportunity of explaining to you that on the 13 th September, 1920, I laid before the Assembly the programme that forms the foundation of our first Constitution Act. Part of this programme was read in the Assembly during the sitting on the 1 8 th September. Together with this part I had a motion printed and circulated which I had laid before the Assembly which served as a basis for this programme and which contained everything under the title of “Programme of a National Policy,” This motion, which was read when the Assembly was opened and passed by them, defined the essential character of the Grand National Assembly and developed the policy of our administrative system. The organisations of which I have spoken, influenced by my programme, began to adopt a number of titles and to formulate their programmes. To give you an idea of this, I will mention the most important titles of these or ganisations :

A. The “Union” Party (Tessanud).

B. The “Independence” Party (Istiklal).

C. The “Union for the Defence of the Rights” Party.

D. The “People s” Party (Halk Sumressi).

E. The “Reform” Party (Islahat Grupi).

Besides these parties there were still some minor ones which had no name and had been formed for personal aims.

All the parties whose names I have just mentioned, although formed for the purpose of maintaining discipline and securing unani mity of voting during the debates, brought about contrary results through their existence.

As a matter of fact, these parties, whose number was considerable and their adherents in rivalry with one another, and the fact that they declined to listen to each other, had actually led to distur bances in the Assembly.

When the Assembly had passed the Constitution Act, that is to say, at about the end of January, 1921, the fact became especially evident that it was very much more difficult to secure unity and co operation among the members and parties in the Assembly in a general way on any question. This was to be attributed to the circumstance that the ideas and desires which had been united unconditionally and unrestrictedly concerning the principles of the National Pact, were far from presenting the same appearance when the question of the various points of view involved in the Constitution Act arose.

I was hard at work indirectly trying to bring forward a union between the parties in existence by strengthening one or the other of them, in order to be able at last to get on with some actual work. But after I had found out that the results attained in this way had no lasting effect, I felt myself compelled personally to interfere.

Eventually I took recourse to forming a party myself under the name of the “Party for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia.”

At the head of the programme which I prepared for this party I put a fundamental article, the meaning of which I summarised in two points. The first was this: “The party will secure the integrity of the country and the independence of the nation on the principles laid down in the National Pact. It will employ all the material and moral forces of the nation to guide them to this end and to obtain peace and quiet. It will press all the organisations and institutions in the country, public and private, into the service of this aim.” Secondly: The party will henceforward exert all its efforts within the compass of the Constitution Act for the purpose of preparing and defining as far as possible the organisation of the State and Nation.”

After having called together all the parties and most of the mem bers of the Assembly, I succeeded in establishing a union on these two principles. The fundamental article which I have just quoted, as well as the other clauses that were drawn up relating to the inner regulations of the party, were agreed to at the sitting on the io t]1 May. I took over the chairmanship of the party, to which I was appointed at a general meeting.

In the same way as there was already in the country a “Union for the Defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia”, the As sembly now had a party bearing a similar name which had its origin in this union. What the Chamber of Deputies in Constantinople had omitted to do was only realised at Angora fourteen months after that Chamber was abolished.

This party allowed the Government to exercise its functions during the whole of the first legislative period.

However, there were some people who believed the second point in the main article regulating the party to be significant.

People of this type, who by no means expressed their feelings, were, nevertheless, immediately active in trying to prevent me from fulfilling the aim which this point expressed.

Efforts of this description, to which we might give the name of negative activity, became evident in two forms.

It was first of all displayed within the party itself for the purpose of confusing their minds and prejudicing them against me, and the same thing happened all over the country and in the circles of our own organisation. The most striking example in support of this as sertion is shown in the attempt undertaken by Raif Effendi, a man of religion and deputy for Erzerum, together with some of his col leagues, after the Constitution Act was passed and before the party had been formed.

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