1920

1920

03-Jan-20 The Deputies started to meet with Mustafa Kemal.
09-Jan-20 Yahya Kaptan of the National Forces was killed at Gebze by the men of the Istanbul Government.
10-Jan-20 “Hakimiyet-i Milliye” – The Sovereignty of the People newspaper was founded in Ankara.
11-Jan-20 A meeting was held in Konya.
12-Jan-20 The last National Assembly opened in Istanbul.
13-Jan-20 A large meeting was held at the Sultanahmet Square for Istanbul to remain Turkish.
14-Jan-20 Mustafa Kemal sent a congratulation message for the opening of the National Assembly.
15-Jan-20 Second Edirne Congress assembled.
20-Jan-20 Ismet Bey (Inönü) gone to Ankara.
20-Jan-20 The independence struggle began at Maras.
24-Jan-20 “Youth Club” was founded in Kastamonu.
26-Jan-20 Celalettin Arif Bey was selected for temporary president of Ottoman Parliament.
26-27 January 1920 Köprülü Hamdi Bey crossed to the Rumelia side together with the National Forces in order to raid the Akbas ammunition store which the French were guarding it.
28-Jan-20 During the assembly of Ottoman Parliament, the National Pact accepted secretly.
31-Jan-20 Resat Hikmet Bey was selected to the presidency of the Ottoman Parliament.
01-Feb-20 The French started to burn the shops in Maras and intense street fights began.
03-Feb-20 Fevzi Pasha became the Ottoman Government’s Minister of War.
06-Feb-20 In the last Ottoman Parliament, Prosperity of the Country Group, which were in favour of resisting the Mondros Armistice, was formed.
09-Feb-20 National Forces entered to Urfa.
11-Feb-20 Mustafa Kemal has spoken with Fevzi Pasha.
12-Feb-20 Maras was liberated from the French occupation.
14-Feb-20 Yenihan revolt started.
15-Feb-20 In London Conference, it was decided to leave Istanbul to the Turks.
16-Feb-20 Second Anzavur revolt began.
17-Feb-20 The Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul decided that the National Pact was accepted, to be published in the press and made known by all the foreign parliaments.
18-Feb-20 The National Pact was issued by Istanbul parliament.
19-Feb-20 The Entente States’ threatening ultimatum was publicized by the Istanbul Government.
22-Feb-20 Mustafa Kemal Pasha, as a response to the Entente States ultimatums, replied to the Istanbul Government.
28-Feb-20 Greek 1 Army Corps’ headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief was moved from Salonika to Izmir.
03-Mar-20 Gölcük plateau and Bozdag was occupied by the Greeks.
03-Mar-20 Ali Riza Pasha Cabinet resigned.
04-Mar-20 Celalettin Arif Bey was elected as the president of the Ottoman Parliament.
05-Mar-20 National Forces’ units attacked against the French.
08-Mar-20 Salih Hulusi Cabinet was assembled.
10-Mar-20 Fifth Balikesir Congress was assembled.
15-Mar-20 The British arrested one hundred and fifty Turkish Intellectuals.
16-Mar-20 Istanbul was occupied by the Entente States. The parliament was raided; some deputies were arrested and exiled to the Malta island. Mustafa Kemal has lodged a protest with all foreign states and parliaments against the occupation of Istanbul, and in Ankara
17-Mar-20 The British withdrawn from Eskisehir and Afyon. (On 24 April the troops landed in Sile.)
18-Mar-20 In Balikesir and in Kastamonu meetings organized to protest occupation of Istanbul.
18-Mar-20 The Ottoman National Assembly made a closure meeting and ended their activity eternally.
19-Mar-20 Mustafa Kemal, with a letter addressed to all the provinces and the Command Posts, asked from them to make elections for the National Assembly to be gathered in Ankara.
26-Mar-20 President Wilson of the United States of America gave a diplomatic note for the forming of Great Armenia.
28-Mar-20 In Antep, Sahin Bey, which became famous for the resistance put up against the French, died serving for his country.
29-Mar-20 Lt. Colonel Rahmi Bey killed by the soldiers committed to Anzavur.
31-Mar-20 Lüleburgaz Congress was assembled.
01-Apr-20 Thrace Congress was assembled.
01-Apr-20 Kizilhisar raid and in city engagements at Antep.
02-Apr-20 Salih Hulusi Pasha government resigned because of the pressure put up by the British.
02-Apr-20 The first party of members of the Istanbul Parliament arrived to Ankara.
03-Apr-20 Ismet Bey (Inönü) joined the National Struggle in Ankara.
04-Apr-20 12th Army Corps Commander Fahrettin (Altay) came to Ankara and met with Mustafa Kemal. (He also has joined to Ankara.)
04-Apr-20 Gönen was captured by Anzavur Ahmed.
05-Apr-20 Damat Ferid Pasha formed his fifth Cabinet.
06-Apr-20 Anadolu Ajansi (a press agency) was established in Ankara.
08-Apr-20 The French asked for a cease-fire.
08-Apr-20 A circular issued by the Representative Committee stating that the Damat Ferid Pasha Cabinet, which was formed right after the resignation of Salih Pasha, will not be recognized.
11-Apr-20 The “Fetva” (opinion or decision on a matter of Canon Law) of the Sheik of Islam, Dürrizade Abdullah stating that, “All the national forces are, excluding the Sultan and the Caliph’s, infidel and it is incumbent to kill” is published in the government paper
11-Apr-20 The French were withdrawn from Urfa.
11-Apr-20 Damat Ferid issued a notice against the National Forces.
11-Apr-20 Parliament was abolished by the Sultan.
12-Apr-20 The French occupation ended in Urfa.
13-Apr-20 First Düzce revolt began.
15-Apr-20 Second Anzavur revolt was suppressed.
17-Apr-20 Fevzi Pasha left Istanbul to join to the War of Independence.
18-Apr-20 In order to suppress the National Forces, the Istanbul Government formed an army under the name of Disciplinary Forces. (These forces, also named as the Caliphate Army, were abolished on 25 June 1920)
19-Apr-20 Beypazari and Nallihan revolts began.
19-Apr-20 Anzavur Ahmed escaped to Istanbul.
19-26 April 1920 The Entente States representatives convened in San Remo in order to decide on the principles of the treaty to be signed with Turkey.
21-Apr-20 Mustafa Kemal’s circular, regarding the opening of the “Turkish Grand National Assembly” on 23 April 1920, was issued.
21-Apr-20 Various religious functionaries in Bursa expressed their opinions, from the point of religion, about the legitimacy of the National Struggle.
22-Apr-20 The Entente States invited Ottoman Government to Paris Peace Conference.
22-Apr-20 24 Division Commander Lt. Colonel Mahmut killed by the rebels while moving from Hendek to Düzce. He died in his service to his country.
23-Apr-20 Mustafa Kemal has opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.
24-Apr-20 Mustafa Kemal was elected President by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Mustafa Kemal made his first speech in the Assembly.
24-Apr-20 Agnam Resmi-The Sheep tax passed in the Turkish Grand National Assembly as the first law.
25-Apr-20 Ismet Bey (Inönü) was appointed as the Chief of the General Staff.
25-Apr-20 The Turkish Grand National Assembly elected a “Provisional Executive Committee.”
26-Apr-20 Mustafa Kemal has asked for war material from the Soviet Government.
27-Apr-20 Fevzi Pasha (Field Marshal Cakmak) joined to the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
28-Apr-20 Istanbul Government issued a decree stating to form “The Anatolian Extraordinary General Inspectorate” in order to establish the administration of the Sultan’s Government in Anatolia. (This organization was abolished on 3 November 1920.)
29-Apr-20 Treason to the Country Law was issued.
30-Apr-20 Mustafa Kemal sent a circular to the foreign ministries of all foreign states informing that the Turkish Grand National Assembly had come into existence.
02-May-20 In the Turkish Grand National Assembly, the law for the election of “Executive Ministers of the Turkish Grand National Assembly” was passed.
03-May-20 The Committee of Executive Ministers, the first Council of Ministers of the Republic, was founded.
05-May-20 The first Council of Ministers elected by the Turkish Grand National Assembly assembled in the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
05-May-20 A revolt started in Konya.
05-May-20 The Mufti (Moslem jurist) of Ankara, Rifat (Börekci) and the religious functionaries of Anatolia issued a “fetva” with their 251 signatures, against The “Fetva” of the Sheik of Islam, Dürrizade Abdullah. (This Fetva was published in The Sovereignty of the
06-May-20 The resolution number 12, concerning the “Prohibition of the official communication with the Istanbul Government” was issued by the Turkish Grand National Assembly”
09-May-20 The Grand Edirne Congress was held.
09-May-20 The Turkish Grand National Assembly issued a circular to the Moslem World.
10-May-20 The forces, devoted to Anzavur Ahmed, captured Adapazari.
10-May-20 Mustafa Kemal spoked with Williams, the correspondent of the Chicago Tribune newspaper.
11-May-20 The draft of the peace treaty determined in San Remo was given to Tevfik (Okday) Pasha, the representative of the Istanbul Government.
11-May-20 Mustafa Kemal sentenced to death by a Special Tribunal assembled in Istanbul. (The Sultan approved it on 24 May.)
11-May-20 A delegation, under the presidency of the External Affairs Minister Bekir Sami, departed for Moscow.
13-May-20 Cafer Tayyar Bey became the commander of the Thracian forces.
15-May-20 The Disciplinary Forces were defeated by the National Forces.
15-May-20 First Yozgat revolt began.
19-May-20 It was decided by the National Assembly that Damat Ferid and his followers will be expelled from the citizenship.
23-May-20 Cerkez Ethem took back Sapanca and Adapazari from the forces devoted to Anzavur Ahmed.
24-May-20 The Sultan confirmed the death sentence of Mustafa Kemal.
24-May-20 The Special Tribunal of Istanbul gave a death sentence to Fevzi (Cakmak) Pasha. (Confirmed on 27 May.)
25-May-20 Cerkez Ethem forces entered Hendek.
27-May-20 Bolu was taken back from the rebels.
27-May-20 Western Trace government was founded.
28-May-20 Osmaniye was occupied by the French.
30-May-20 The cease fire agreement signed with the French in Ankara, came into effect. (For a 20-day period.)
30-31 May 1920 “The National Defence Commander” title was given to Cafer Tayyar (Egilmez) by the Edirne Defence of Rights Centre Committee.
01-Jun-20 The US Senate refused the Armenian Mandate proposal made by the President Wilson.
02-Jun-20 Kozan was liberated from the enemy occupation.
03-Jun-20 The Soviet Government gave a reply to Mustafa Kemal’s letter.
04-Jun-20 Trianon Peace Treaty signed between The Entente States and Hungary.
06-Jun-20 The Special Tribunal of Istanbul gave death sentences to Ismet Inönü, Bekir Sami Kunduh, Celalettin Arif, Dr. Riza Nur, Yusuf Kemal Tengirsenk, Hamdullah Suphi Tanriöver, Rifat Börekci and Fahrettin Altay.
6 -7 June 1920 Zile revolt began.
07-Jun-20 The law stating that, “any agreement made or to be made, after the date of 16 March 1920 (the day Istanbul was occupied by the Entente States) by the Istanbul Government will be considered invalid,” passed from the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
08-Jun-20 In the Eastern Region mobilization was declared against the Armenian assault.
8-26 June 1920 In the East, the Milli Tribe revolt began.
13-Jun-20 The rebels occupied the small town of Köhne.
14-Jun-20 Capanoglu revolt began in Yozgat.
15-Jun-20 The commandership of 15 Army Corps was renamed as “the Commandership of the Eastern Front.”
15-Jun-20 The Sultan approved the death sentence of Ismet Bey.
18-Jun-20 The French occupied Zonguldak after ending the 20-day long cease-fire.
20-Jun-20 The order of attack was given to the Greek Army.
21-Jun-20 Mustafa Kemal spoken with Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) in Eskisehir.
21 -22 June 1920 The conference of Boulogne was assembled.
22-Jun-20 The Greeks passed the Milne Line and started their general offensive. In the east the Armenians started their attack.
23-Jun-20 Cerkez Ethem entered to Yozgat.
24-Jun-20 The Greeks occupied Alasehir.
24 -25 June 1920 The Western Front Command was established. Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) Pasha was appointed as the commander.
25-Jun-20 The British landed troops to Mudanya and withdrawn in a short time after.
26-Jun-20 As per the decision of the Council of Ministers, the commandership’s of Elcezire and Adana have been established.
27-Jun-20 The Capanoglu revolt was suppressed.
27-Jun-20 Kula incident occurred. (The defeatists dispersed the troops.)
30-Jun-20 Balikesir and Edremit regions were occupied by the Greeks.
02-Jul-20 The British tried to land troops to Mudanya and the Greeks occupied small towns of Kemalpasa and Gönen.
03-Jul-20 The Independence Tribunal gave a death sentence to Damat Ferid Pasha.
03-Jul-20 Hacin (It was renamed Saimbeyli) was occupied by the French.
06-Jul-20 The British landed troops to Mudanya Region.
08-Jul-20 Bursa was occupied by the Greeks.
09-Jul-20 An ultimatum was given to Armenia to protest the massacre occurred in the east.
10-Jul-20 After the Greek occupation of Bursa on the 8 July, the rostrum of the Turkish Grand National Assembly was covered with black cloth.
10-Jul-20 Bilecik was liberated.
12-Jul-20 Iznik was occupied by the Greeks.
14-Jul-20 Concealed Turkish Communist Party was founded.
18-Jul-20 An oath was taken on the National Pact in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
19-Jul-20 The delegation, under the presidency of the External Affairs Minister Bekir Sami, arrived to Moscow.
19-Jul-20 Second Düzce revolt emerged.
20-Jul-20 The Greeks occupied the Tekirdag region together with the forces that arrived from Bandirma.
20-25 July 1920 Eastern Thrace battles began.
22-Jul-20 The Sevres treaty was accepted by the Sovereignty Council assembled under the presidency of the Sultan Vahdeddin.
23-Jul-20 Babaeski, Lüleburgaz and Hayrabolu were occupied by the Greeks
23-24 July 1920 Colonel Cafer Tayyar (Egilmez) was captured by the Greeks at Havza-Bostanli.
30-Jul-20 Damat Ferid pasha, who had resigned a day earlier in Istanbul, was again, the fifth time, assigned to form a government.
01-Aug-20 Cerkez Ethem’s forces entered to the small town of Demirci.
06-Aug-20 Halit Bey, one of the leaders of the Capanoglu revolt was captured.
10-Aug-20 The Sevres treaty signed.
14-Aug-20 Captain Seref Bey entered Bolu.
17-Aug-20 Under the presidency of Bekir Sami, the negotiations between the Turkish delegation and the Soviet delegation began.
18-Aug-20 The National Forces entered Antep.
19-Aug-20 The ones who had signed the Sèvres treaty and who had voted in favour of it at the Sovereignty Council were declared as traitors by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
24-Aug-20 Second Milli Tribe revolt began. (It was suppressed on 8 September 1920.)
29-Aug-20 Usak was occupied by the Greeks.
30-Aug-20 Adapazari and Düzce Populace who had participated to the revolt were pardoned by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
03-Sep-20 Simav was occupied by the Greeks.
03-Sep-20 Nizip was occupied.
05-Sep-20 “Adequate Majority” law was accepted at the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
05-Sep-20 Second Yozgat revolt began. (It was suppressed on 30 December 1920.)
06-Sep-20 Rafet Bey became the Minister for Internal Affairs.
07-Sep-20 Mustafa Kemal was within the officers who had been degraded. This was published in the “Takvimi Vekay” (the Ottoman government gazette). Mustafa Kemal’s rank degraded to Lt. Colonel.
11-Sep-20 The Turkish Grand National Assembly decided for the establishment of the Independence Tribunals.
12-Sep-20 The Eastern Front units began to their offensive against the Armenians.
13-Sep-20 The Populism Programme of Mustafa Kemal submitted to the Turkish Grand National Assembly. (It was read in the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 18 September.)
13-Sep-20 Mustafa Kemal met with the Ottoman delegation, Ahmet Izzet and Salih Pashas in the Bilecik Train station.
14-Sep-20 The “Prohibition of alcoholic beverages Law” was accepted in the Turkish Grand National Assembly. (It was published on 28 February 1921.)
23-Sep-20 First Soviet war materials arrived.
24-Sep-20 On the Eastern Front the Armenians began their attacks at Bardiz and Kötek.
29-Sep-20 Sarikamis was taken back from the Armenians.
01-Oct-20 National Forces took back Kagizman.
02-Oct-20 Delibas revolt began in Konya.
06-Oct-20 National Forces entered Konya.
07-Oct-20 “Ceride-i Resmiye-the Government Gazette” was established.
15-Oct-20 Saimbeyli was rescued at the Southern Front.
17-Oct-20 Damat Ferid Pasha resigned from the Grand Vizierate.
17-Oct-20 The Soviet proposals that were against the National Pact principles were refused by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
18-Oct-20 The Turkish Communist Party was founded officially.
21-Oct-20 The last Ottoman government was formed in Istanbul under the presidency of Tevfik Pasha.
24-Oct-20 On the Western Front the Turkish Forces realized the Gediz offensive.
27-Oct-20 Inegöl and Yenisehir were occupied by the Greeks.
27-Oct-20 The Turkish Grand National Assembly decided not to accept any more deputies from the Istanbul Parliament from that day onwards.
30-Oct-20 Kars was taken back from the Armenians.
01-Nov-20 Officers Candidate encampment in Ankara gave its first graduates.
02-Nov-20 Second party Soviet war materials arrived.
04-Nov-20 Alterations were made on the election procedure of the Executive Committee. (Until that time ministers were elected with hidden votes of the assembly members. From then on, the ministers were to be chosen from within the candidates indicated by the presid
06-Nov-20 On the Eastern Front the Armenians requested a truce.
07-Nov-20 The units of the Eastern Front occupied Gümrü. (Alexandropol)
08-Nov-20 The Armenians didn’t accept the peace provisions proposed by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
08-Nov-20 The decision was made for the appointment of Ali Fuat Pasha to Moscow as the Turkish Ambassador to the Soviet Union.
08-Nov-20 It was decided to continue the war with a regular army.
09-Nov-20 The Western Front was divided into two parts. (Northern Sector and Southern Sector.) The Northern Sector was given to Ismet Bey (Inönü), who also combined the functions of Commander of the Western Front and of Chief of the General staff. The Southern Sect
11-Nov-20 The headquarters of the Eastern Front was moved to Gümrü.
12-Nov-20 The Turkish forces entered Igdi after Armenians evacuated it.
15-Nov-20 Sheik Sunusi of Libya arrived to Ankara.
15-Nov-20 Islahiye was liberated.
18-Nov-20 Armistice was signed with Armenia.
18-Nov-20 The Turkish Grand National Assembly issued a declaration against imperialism.
20-Nov-20 General Papulas was appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Greek armies in Turkey.
21-Nov-20 Ali Fuat Pasha became the Turkish Ambassador for Moscow.
22-Nov-20 The Greek Commander -in- Chief arrived to Izmir.
25-Nov-20 “The prevention of unnecessary expenditures in the weddings” law was passed in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
27-Nov-20 Disobedience of Cerkez Ethem and his units came to light with a letter written by his brother Tevfik to Western Front Commander and to Mustafa Kemal.
29-Nov-20 The “Independence Medal” law was accepted.
01-Dec-20 Demirci Mehmet Efe started a revolt.
03-Dec-20 The Treaty of Gümrü was signed between Turkey and Armenia, drawing the frontiers.
03-Dec-20 Mamure was liberated.
04-Dec-20 Meetings held in Eskisehir between Mustafa Kemal, Ismet Inönü and the brother of Cerkez Ethem, the Deputy Cerkez Resit.
05-Dec-20 The Bilecik meeting held between Izzet (Furgac), Salih (Hulusi Kezrak), who came from Istanbul, and Mustafa Kemal.
06-Dec-20 The ones who had participated in the Bilecik meeting were taken to Ankara.
09-Dec-20 The Central Army was established. Nurettin Pasha became its commander.
11-Dec-20 A military unit was sent on Demirci Mehmet Efe.
13-Dec-20 The Eastern Front Headquarters was moved to Kars.
16-Dec-20 Demirci Mehmet Efe was defeated.
19-Dec-20 After the plebiscite held on 5 December, Constantine arrived in Athens as the King of the Greeks.
24-Dec-20 To straighten up Cerkez Ethem, an Advice Committee was sent to Kütahya.
27-Dec-20 Cerkez Ethem revolt began.
29-Dec-20 Kütahya was cleared out from the Ethem’s forces by the Turkish Grand National Assembly forces.

1919 <<…………                                                                                                   ………..>> 1921

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