1919

1919

02-Jan-19 Lord Curzon’s memorandum, in the manner of “The Turks in the Eastern Thrace and the Greeks in the Western Anatolia should be exchanged” was publicised.
07-Jan-19 The British asked the towns of Kars, Ardahan and Batum to be evacuated.
10-Jan-19 Turkish units handed over Medina.
12-Jan-19 The British entered Kars and settled in certain locations.
13-Jan-19 The second Tevfik (Okday) Pasha government was formed in Istanbul. (Resigned at 3 March. His first cabinet was formed on 11th November 1918.)
14-Jan-19 Hadimköy-Kuleliburgaz railway stations were occupied by the Greeks. (Later on, Eastern Railways Directorate office was occupied by the French.)
15-Jan-19 Haydarpasa Railway Station was occupied by the British.
17 January 1919 The second “Kars National Islamic Council” was assembled.
18 January 1919 the Peace Conference assembled at Versailles, Paris.
22 January 1919 Turkish forces evacuated Batum.
22-Jan-19 A British unit entered Konya.
22-Jan-19 Freedom and Entente Party began to work again.
26-Jan-19 Nurettin Pasha commenced his duty as the governor of Izmir.
30-Jan-19 Committee of Union and Progress party’s 27 members were sent to the Military Court.
02-Feb-19 During the Peace Conference, the Prime Minister Venizelos demanded Aegean Islands, Thrace and Western Anatolia to be handed over to Greece.
05-Feb-19 After the declaration of constitutional monarchy, the censorship, which was abolished on 24 July 1908, had become in force again in Istanbul.(Abolished again on 4 October 1922)
07-Feb-19 The British Field Marshal Allenby arrived in Istanbul.
08-Feb-19 The Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Armies General Franchet D’Esperey, who had arrived to Istanbul by ship on 23 November 1918 entered Istanbul with a pompous ceremony
09-Feb-19 Field Marshal Allenby gave a warning to Istanbul Government.
12-Feb-19 The Defence of Rights National Association of Trabzon was founded.
14-Feb-19 Nurettin Pasha was appointed to 17 Armed Corps Command.
19-Feb-19 The Rise of Islam Committee” was founded in Istanbul.
19-Feb-19 “The Defence of Rights National Association of the Black Sea Turk’s was founded.
22-Feb-19 Maras was occupied by the British.
01-Mar-19 During the Paris Peace Conference the British and the French delegations proposed land to be given to Greece in Anatolia.
04-Mar-19 Damat Ferid Pasha’s cabinet had taken over the government of Tevfik (Okday) Pasha which was resigned a day earlier.
06-Mar-19 The Greeks of Istanbul behaved rowdily and carried out some assaults.
07-Mar-19 Kozan was occupied by the French.
08-Mar-19 Zonguldak and Eregli was occupied by the French. (Liberated between 20 and 21 June 1921)
13-Mar-19 Kazim Karabekir Pasha was appointed to the Command of 15 Army Corps in Erzurum. (Arrived in Erzurum on 3 of May.)
14-Mar-19 The British Prime Minister Lloyd George, The French Prime Minister Clemenceau, the Italian Prime Minister Orlando and the President Wilson of the United States of America accepted the landing plan of the Greek’s in Paris.
15-Mar-19 Albanian Help Committee founded in Istanbul.
19-Mar-19 A delegation from Izmir was admitted to see the Sultan.
19-Mar-19 The Defence of Rights Congress of Izmir assembled
19-Mar-19 Mustafa Kemal sent a letter to Erzurum explaining how to be organized.
24-Mar-19 Urfa was occupied by the British.
28-Mar-19 Antalya was occupied by the Italians.
30-Mar-19 Merzifon was occupied by the British.
30-Mar-19 Damat Ferid Pasha gave a project to Admiral Calthorpe in order to obtain the protection of Britain.
10-Apr-19 The Kaimakam ( provincial district governor) of Bogazlayan was executed.
13-Apr-19 Kars was occupied by the British.
16-Apr-19 Afyonkarahisar was occupied by the French.
20-Apr-19 The Georgian units entered Ardahan.
24-Apr-19 The Italian troops entered Konya.
30-Apr-19 Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the Inspector-General of the 9 Army.
05-May-19 Mustafa Kemal’s order of appointment to Samsun was published in Takvim-i Vekâyi. (The government gazette of its time.)
5-6 May 1919 During the Peace Conference in Paris, The Prime Minister of Britain Lloyd George asked Greece to land in Izmir.
10-May-19 The occupation of Izmir was decided on by the Entente States in Paris.
11-May-19 Ali Bati revolt began.
14-May-19 Admiral Calthorpe gave a diplomatic note for the occupation of Izmir.
14-May-19 Cevat Pasha was assigned as the Chief of the General Staff.
14-May-19 The fortifications in the small towns and villages of Foca, Karaburun, Urla and Yenikale were occupied by the British, the French and the Greeks.
14-15 May 1919 The patriots of Izmir gathered at night in the Jewish cemetery and accepted the “refusal of annex” principle. Newly founded “The National Committee of the Refusal of Annex” issued an announcement to the people
15-May-19 Izmir was occupied by the Greeks with the support of the Entente States. The first armed resistance began.
15-May-19 Four hours and 10 minutes after the occupation of Izmir, in the presidency of the Mufti (The official person in charge of Islamic Affairs in a province or district) of Denizli, Ahmed Hulusi Efendi (Mr.) “Denizli National Committee” was founded.
15-16 May 1919 Damat Ferid Pasha Cabinet resigned
16-May-19 The people of Balikesir decided to protest the occupation and agreed on armed resistance.
16-May-19 Urla and Seferihisar were occupied by the Greeks
16-May-19 Mustafa Kemal left Istanbul for Samsun on board of the Bandirma Steamboat as the Inspector-General of 9 Army.
17 May 1919 Rafet Bey (Bele) was appointed to 3 Army Corps Command in Sivas
18-May-19 University of Istanbul (Dar-ül Fünun) arranged it’s first meeting to protest the occupation.
18-May-19 The people of Balikesir arranged the Alacamescid meeting.
19-May-19 Mustafa Kemal arrived to Samsun and the Turkish War of Independence commenced.
19-May-19 Damat Ferid Pasha formed his second Cabinet.
20-May-19 The British Friendship Society was founded
20-May-19 Colonel Bekir Sami was appointed to the Command of 17 Army Corps.
20-May-19 Seydiköy was occupied by the Greeks
21-May-19 Mustafa Kemal informed his thoughts under a secret cipher to Kazim Karabekir Pasha who was 15 Army Corps Commander in Erzurum.
21-May-19 Afyonkarahisar which was occupied by the French, on 16 April changed hands to the Italians.
22-May-19 Mustafa Kemal, on his report to Prime Ministry, stated that “Nation has become one body,  accepted the essence of sovereignty and the feelings of Turkishness as a target.”
22-May-19 Kadiköy Mass meeting was held and (Ms.) Halide Edip made a public speech.
23-May-19 Mass meetings held at Sultanahmet Square in Istanbul and in Sivas.
23-May-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha, by sending a telegram, contacted for the first time with the Commander of the 20 Army Corps Ali Fuat Pasha (Cebesoy)
23-May-19 Mollah Sait informed mayors that “The British Friendship Society” was founded.
25-May-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived to Havza.
26-May-19 Manisa was occupied by the Greeks.
26-May-19 In Istanbul, the Council of Sultanate decided to accept the British mandate.
27-May-19 Aydin was occupied by the Greeks
28-May-19 During his stay in Havza, Mustafa Kemal asked from high civilian post officials and military commanders to arrange mass meetings against the occupations.
28-May-19 Struggle started with the Greeks around Ödemis.(The British arrested 67 people who were involved with politics and exiled them to Malta.)
29-May-19 In Ayvalik, under the leadership of Ali Bey (Cetinkaya) resistance began against  the Greeks.
2 June 1919 Kazim Özalp began his duty at 61 Division.
03-Jun-19 In reply to the Ministry of War related to the meetings, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said, “I cannot see any power and strength in anybody to stop the national excitement and demonstrations of the nation”.
04-Jun-19 Nazilli was occupied by the Greeks.
6 June 1919 General Milne, the Entente Commander-in-Chief gave an ultimatum to the Istanbul Government.
6 June 1919 Damad Ferid and the delegations departed to participate in the Paris Peace Conference
08-Jun-19 The Minister of War called back Mustafa Kemal Pasha to Istanbul.
08-Jun-19 Rauf Bey (Orbay) arrived to Ankara.
09-Jun-19 National Resistance Unit was formed at the Aydin Front.
10-Jun-19 The circular of Mustafa Kemal Pasha: “For the sake of our National Independence… I take an oath in the name of holy things I believe and value, that I will work together with the nation until the end.”
11-Jun-19 Damat Ferid Pasha arrived to Paris to participate in the Paris Peace Conference.
12-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal departed from Havza.
12 June 1919 A volunteered detachment formed in Alasehir fought with the Greek forces.
13-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal received a delegation in Amasya.
16-Jun-19 Yörük Ali Efe annihilated a Greek detachment.
17-Jun-19 Erzurum Province Congress was assembled.
17-Jun-19 In Istanbul, the British High Commissioner Admiral Calthorpe sent a letter to the Ministry of War and asked for Mustafa Kemal to  be recalled.
18-Jun-19 The Ali Bati revolt was suppressed.
18-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal issued a circular concerning the uniting of Anatolia and Rumelia (the European part of the Ottoman Empire) National Organizations.
18-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal sent his thoughts, under a secret cipher, to Cafer Tayyar (Egilmez), the Commander of the Army Corps in Thrace.
19-Jun-19 Ali Fuat Pasha and Rauf Bey arrived to Amasya in order to meet with Mustafa Kemal
21-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal, in a letter sent to well-known people in Istanbul [Abdurrahman Seref, Resit Akif Pasha, Seyit, Ms. Halide Edip (Adivar), KaraVasif, The Minister of Public Works Ferit Pasha, The president of the Peace and well-being Party Ferit Pasha, Cami
21-Jun-19 Amasya Circular was prepared.
22-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal, in his historic Amasya Circular, announced that, “In order to form national forces within one aim and one organization, it was necessary to convene a Nationalist Congress at Sivas.”
22-Jun-19 Erzurum Province Congress ended.
23-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal was dismissed from his duties by the Istanbul government.
25-Jun-19 Cerkez (Circassian) Ethem’s and Demirci (Blacksmith) Mehmet Efe’s forces began to struggle with the Greeks.
25 June 1919 Mustafa Kemal Pasha departed from Amasya to Sivas.
26 June 1919 At the end of World War One, the Versailles Peace Treaty was signed between the Imperial Germany and the Entente States.
27-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal arrived to Sivas
28-Jun-19 Mustafa Kemal departed from Sivas towards Erzurum
28-Jun-19 First Balikesir Congress was assembled.
3 July 1919 Mustafa Kemal arrived to Erzurum in order to join to the Defence of Rights Movement congress of Eastern Provinces
8 July 1919 Mustafa Kemal resigned from his official duties and from the military.
09-Jul-19 Minister of War issued a circular stating the dismissal of Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s duties.
10-Jul-19 Trakya-Pasaeli Congress began.
11-Jul-19 Demirci Mehmet Efe joined to the National Resistance lines.
13-Jul-19 Refet Bele Bey was removed from his post of 3 Army Corps Commander by the Istanbul government.
18-Jul-19 The Entente High Commissioner made a division between Italy and Greece who could not come to an agreement for the occupied zones, and decided that Aydin should be given to the Italians.
20-Jul-19 Kazim Karabekir Pasha was appointed to 3 Army Inspectorate (previously 9 Army) as deputy inspector.
20-Jul-19 Mustafa Kemal told Mazhar Müfit (Kansu) that a Republic will be founded in the future.
21 July 1919 For the third time Damat Ferid Pasha assembled a government.
23-Jul-19 Erzurum Congress was assembled and Mustafa Kemal was selected as the chairman of the congress.
23-Jul-19 Erzurum Congress began to work.
26-Jul-19 Second Balikesir Congress was assembled.
04-Aug-19 The commander of 3 Caucasian Division Lt. Colonel Halit (later on General Karsialan) sent a telegram to Mustafa Kemal stating his devotion to him.
04-Aug-19 Ismet Bey (Inönü) was appointed to the Military Council membership.
06-Aug-19 First Nazilli Congress was assembled.
07-Aug-19 Erzurum Congress ended.
07-Aug-19 Mustafa Kemal replied to the telegram of Lt. Colonel Halit.
09-Aug-19 First Nazilli Congress finished its studies
09-Aug-19 Mustafa Kemal was discharged from the military.
10-Aug-19 Halide Edip Adıvar sent a letter to Mustafa Kemal suggesting to turn to United States.
14-Aug-19 The first assembly of the Representative Committee realized
16-Aug-19 Alasehir Congress began.
24 August 1919 The Defence of Rights Society of Eastern Anatolia was formed.
25-Aug-19 Alasehir Congress finalized its studies.
27 August 1919 Erzurum’s citizenship was given to Mustafa Kemal
29 August 1919 Mustafa Kemal departed from Erzurum.
02-Sep-19 Mustafa Kemal arrived in Sivas.
03-Sep-19 The Istanbul government tried to stop the Sivas Congress
04-Sep-19 Sivas Congress assembled and Mustafa Kemal was selected as the President of the congress.
07-Sep-19 The Society for the Defence of Rights in Anatolia and Rumelia was formed.
08-Sep-19 Suggestions of a mandate were accepted in the congress.
09-Sep-19 The Representative Committee that received Decision and Application Power by the Sivas Congress appointed Ali Fuat Pasha as the Commander of the Anatolian General National Resistance.
11-Sep-19 Mustafa Kemal was selected as the President of Standing Committee of the Society for the Defence of Rights in Anatolia and Rumelia.
11-Sep-19 The Sivas Congress ended.
12-Sep-19 Sultan Vahdeddin certified the Mandate Pact with Great Britain.
13 September 1919 The circular of Mustafa Kemal Pasha concerning the preparation for selecting the members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly was issued
14-Sep-19 “The Determination of the Nation” newspaper was published in Sivas.
16-Sep-19 Third Balikesir Congress was assembled.
19-Sep-19 Second Nazilli Congress was assembled.
20-Sep-19 Vahdeddin issued a declaration relating to assist the Istanbul Government.
22-Sep-19 Mustafa Kemal talked with General Harbourd.
27-Sep-19 Third Bozkir revolt emerged.
27-28 September 1919 The Governor of Konya escaped to Istanbul.
30-Sep-19 Damad Ferid Pasha resigned from the Grand Vizierate.
02-Oct-19 Ali Riza Pasha Government was formed.
02-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal wrote a letter to Istanbul Municipality asking them to join in the struggle in Anatolia.
03-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal, in his telegram sent to the new Grand Vizier, stated that if the government complies with the aim of Erzurum and Sivas Congress,the national organizations will assist the government
04-Oct-19 First Bozkir revolt was suppressed. On the same date Mustafa Kemal, with a telegram sent to Yahya Kaptan, a militia commander, asked to set up a strong organization in the Izmit region.
07-Oct-19 Trakya-Pasaeli Defence Committee of the Ottoman’s joined to the Society for the Defence of Rights in Anatolia and Rumelia.
07-Oct-19 The International investigation committee, which was founded to investigate the cruelty made by the Greeks, gave their report to the Peace  Conference in Paris.
13-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal answered the questions directed to him by the editorial writer Velit (Ebüzziya) of “Tasviri Efkâr” Newspaper.
15-Oct-19 Minister of the Navy Salih Pasha departed for Amasya.
16-Oct-19 First Edirne Conference began.
16-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal and his friends departed from Sivas towards Amasya.
17-Oct-19 In western Thrace the small town of Iskece was occupied by the Greeks.
18-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal and his friends arrived to Amasya.
20-Oct-19 Second Bozkir revolt began
20-22 October 1919 In Amasya, Mustafa Kemal met with the Minister of the Navy Salih Pasha who came from Istanbul.Amasya Protocol was signed
23-Oct-19 Constantinapol was chosen and accepted as the centre by the Greek citizens of the Ottomans for Pontus Operations (and for East Thrace).
25-Oct-19 First Anzavur revolt began.
26-Oct-19 Sheik Esref revolt began in Hart, the subdistrict of Bayburt.
27-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal departed for Tokat.
28-Oct-19 Mustafa Kemal departed from Tokat towards Sivas.
28-Oct-19 The Representative Committee decided to support Ali Riza Pasha Cabinet.
29-Oct-19 The French replaced the British Occupation Forces in the Southeast  and entered Antep.
31-Oct-19 Sütcü Imam incident occurred in Maras.
03-Nov-19 A resistance organization under the name of Security Society was founded.
3 November 1919 General Milne notified Minister of War Cemal Pasha to move the national forces at Izmir Front 3 kilometres back
04-Nov-19 Second Bozkir revolt was suppressed.
05-Nov-19 Anatolian Women Defence of the Country Society was founded.
07-Nov-19 Mustafa Kemal was elected Deputy for Erzurum for the Ottoman parliament that was decided to assemble in  Istanbul.
16-Nov-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha made some suggestions to certain army corps and division commanders for the organization of national forces in the west and to receive support from the army.
16-Nov-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha presented a suggestion to the Ministry of War on the behalf of the Representative Committee for the arrangement of the forces in Eastern Anatolia at three front.
16-Nov-19 Mustafa Necati, Vasif and Esat (Cinar) brothers started to publish a newspaper in Balikesir, called “Izmir’e Dogru-Towards Izmir.”
19-Nov-19 Fourth Balikesir Congress was assembled.
21-Nov-19 Gökcen Efe died for the country.
27-Nov-19 Peace treaty was signed in Neuilly between the Entente States and Bulgaria.
27-Nov-19 Kara Vasif has departed for Sivas.
28-Nov-19 Maras struggle began.
29-Nov-19 Defence of Rights Association was founded  in Maras
29-Nov-19 Security Society was founded in Istanbul.
30-Nov-19 The Anzavur forces were destroyed in their first revolt.
04-Dec-19 Trabzon and its Environment Non-Centralized Society was founded
08-Dec-19 The administration of the movement of Western Anatolia was given to Ali Fuat Pasha.
10-Dec-19 The Commander of 3 Army Corps,Colonel Refet (Bele) arrived to Nazilli and took over the command of Aydin National Forces.
13-Dec-19 Victorious High Commissariat has not accepted the occupation of İzmir by the Greeks.
18-Dec-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha departed from Sivas.
18-Dec-19 Pontus Government was founded in Batum.
23-Dec-19 The Italians, after Antalya,moved up to Konya.
27-Dec-19 Mustafa Kemal arrived to Ankara together with the members of Representative Committee.
28-Dec-19 Mustafa Kemal spoken with the citizens of Ankara and explained the situation.
29-Dec-19 National forces formed in Urfa.
29-Dec-19 Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s circular on the subject of the Deputies to come to Ankara in order to meet with the Representative Committee was issued
29-Dec-19 Council of Ministers reached a decision on the subject of that, Mustafa Kemal has not been discarded from the Army, that he has resigned and, that all the orders and medals received should be returned back.

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