Currently there is no event scheduled by The Atatürk Society Of Canada.
The Atatürk Society Of Canada commemorates the following days in remembering Mustafa Kemal Atatürk by organizing events or/and participating to the events which are already scheduled.
|The 23rd of April||National Sovereignty and Children’s Day|
|The 25th of April||Gallipoli Battles (ANZAC Day)|
|The 19th of May||Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day|
|The 30th of August||Victory Day|
|The 29th of October||Republic Day|
|The 10th of November||Atatürk Memorial Day|
This national day (23 April National Sovereignty and Children’s Day) in Turkey is a unique event. The founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, dedicated April 23 to the children of the country to emphasize that they are the future of the new nation. It was on April 23, 1920, during the War of Independence, that the Grand National Assembly met in Ankara and laid down the foundations of a new, independent, secular, and modern republic from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire. Following the defeat of the Allied invasion forces on September 9, 1922 and the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on July 24, 1923, Ataturk started his task of establishing the institutions of the new state. Over the next eight years, Ataturk and his followers adopted sweeping reforms to create a modern Turkey, divorced from her Ottoman past. In unprecedented moves, he dedicated the sovereignty day to the children and entrusted in the hands of the youth the protection of this sovereignty and independence.
Every year, the children in Turkey celebrate this “Sovereignty and Children’s Day” as a national holiday. Schools participate in week-long ceremonies marked by performances in all fields in large stadiums watched by the entire nation. Among the activities on this day, the children send their representatives to replace state officials and high ranking bureaucrats in their offices. The President, the Prime Minister, the Cabinet Ministers, provincial governors all turn over their positions to children’s representatives. These children, in turn, sign executive orders relating to educational and environmental policies. On this day, the children also replace the parliamentarians in the Grand National Assembly and hold a special session to discuss matters concerning children’s issues.
Over the last two decades, the Turkish officials have been working hard to internationalize this important day. Their efforts resulted in large number of world states’ sending groups of children to Turkey to participate in the above stated festivities. During their stay in Turkey, the foreign children are housed in Turkish homes and find an important opportunity to interact with the Turkish kids and learn about each other’s countries and cultures. The foreign children groups also participate in the special session of the Grand National Assembly. This results in a truly international Assembly where children pledge their commitment to international peace and brotherhood.
The importance of April 23 as a special day of children has been recognized by the international community. UNICEF decided to recognize this important day as the International Children’s Day.
**This article was taken from the information leaflet given to the guests of the first April 23 Children’s Day on University of Missouri-Columbia Campus, which was organized by the Turkish Students’ Association in April, 1992. It is also mentioned at http://www.turkishnews.com/DiscoverTurkey/culture/april23/ , http://www.unicef.org/specialsession/docs_new/documents/A-S27-PV4E.pdf
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign or the Battle of Gallipoli, took place at the peninsula of Gallipoli in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916, during the First World War. A jointBritish and French operation was mounted to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople and secure a sea route toRussia. The attempt failed, with heavy casualties on both sides.
The Gallipoli campaign resonated profoundly among all nations involved. In Turkey, the battle is perceived as a defining moment in the history of the Turkish people—a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the centuries-old Ottoman Empire was crumbling. The struggle laid the grounds for the Turkish War of Independence and the foundation of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal Pasha, himself a commander at Gallipoli.
The campaign was the first major battle undertaken by the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), and is often considered to mark the birth of national consciousness in both of these countries. As Anzac Day, 25 April remains the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in Australia and New Zealand, surpassing Armistice.
**The information presented above is partially reflected from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign web page
The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day, or simply Atatürk Commemoration (Atatürk’ü Anma) and Youth and Sports Day (Gençlik ve Spor Bayramı), is an annualTurkish national holiday celebrated on May 19 to commemorate the start of the Turkish War of Independence.
May 19, 1919 is the day Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, then Mustafa Kemal, who would become independent Turkey’s first president, landed on the main peninsula of Turkey to begin leadership of the liberation effort. In early 1920, Kemal convened the first Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara, and by 1922 all of Anatolia was freed from foreign rule. The independent Republic of Turkey was declared a year later. During the course of his term as president, Atatürk himself proclaimed May 19 as “Youth and Sports Day.” In the aftermath of Atatürk, the day serves to honor the country’s founder.
Children sing the national anthem, play sports, parade, commemorate Atatürk and are reminded of the values of democracy and Turkey.
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus also commemorates this day, as it shares its culture and many of its holidays with Turkey.
Victory Day (local name: Zafer Bayramı) on August 30 is a national holiday in Turkey to commemorate the victory in the Battle of Dumlupınar, the final battle in the Turkish War of Independence in 1922.
As the outcome of these series of battles Turkish forces defeated invading Greek forces from Anatolia and forced the Greek forces evacuate the occupied territories. The outcome of the battle led Turkish forces to gain more lands by negations and independent state for Turks.
Turkish attack and breakthrough (26–27 August 1922)
Turkish soldiers in trench, who were waiting for the order to attack with fixing the bayonet on their rifles during the artillery preparatory fires.
The Turkish attack opened in the night of 25–26 August 1922, when the Turkish V Cavalry Corps passed through the Kirka gorge behind the Greek lines. The gorge was guarded by a patrolling Greek rifle company, which was easily overrun by the advancing Turkish cavalry. The Turkish cavalry proceeded to cut the Greek telegraph lines and the railway line (by 1800 hours on the 26 August both had been cut), thus seriously hampering communications between Izmir and Afyon.
On the morning of 26 August the Turkish First and Second Armies attacked simultaneously. The Second Army’s attack, following a powerful artillery barrage, took the Greeks by surprise and was able to take some front line positions of the 5th Greek division (of the Greek A’ Corps). Renewed Turkish attacks had little success. Being reinforced the Greek 5th division carried limited counterattacks and restored its original front. The Second Army also attacked the positions of the C’ Corps keeping its forces pinned, and preventing it from the reinforcing the B’ Corps.
The First Army’s attack was preceded by a devastating and very accurate artillery barrage. The much superior Turkish heavy artillery knocked out the light Greek batteries, and caused heavy casualties to the front-line Greek infantry battalions (some lost up to 50% of their strength during the artillery barrage alone). The artillery barrage was followed by a general Turkish attack by 7 infantry divisions of the I and IV Corps, against 2 Greek divisions (1st and 4th). The situation for the Greek A’ Corps became almost immediately critical, as they faced overwhelming forces and all Corps’ reserves were committed to battle. The Turkish attack was focused mainly on the seam of the Greek 1st and 4th divisions.
By noon the Turkish I Corps had succeeded in carrying the Greek 1st division’s trenches. The arrival as a reinforcement of the B’ Corps’ 7th division in the afternoon promoted a Greek counterattack which was able to only partially restore the line.
The Greek Army HQ in Izmir had no clear picture of the situation. In its order at 2300 hours on 26 August to the A’ and B’ Corps the Army expressed the opinion that the Turks had still not revealed the main axis of their offensive. The Army proceeded with its original plan, by ordering the Greek B’ Corps to prepare for a counteroffensive on the Turkish right flank, while the A’ Corps would keep its positions. The counter-offensive was expected to be launched on 28 August.
These orders directly conflicted with the orders that the A’ Corps had issued to the B’ Corps, and the A’ Corps ordered the B’ Corps to stop any preparations for a counteroffensive and resume sending its forces south to reinforce the badly battered 1st and 4th divisions. Due to the broken communications, the Army HQ in Izmir didn’t receive the notifications of the A’ and B’ Corps and had the impression that things developed as ordered.
At 0200 hours on the 27 August (Day 2 of the Turkish offensive) Turkish artillery began its barrage again, and at 0600 hours Turkish infantry resumed its attacks. The Turkish forces focused again on the seam of the Greek 1st and 4th divisions, and advancing steadily they managed by 0900 hours to achieve a clear breakthrough in the Greek line when the Turkish IV Corps under Colonel Sami took the 5,000 feet (1,500 m) high peak of Erkmentepe. At 1030 hours the Greek A’ Corps issued an order of general withdrawal some 20 km to the north of its original line, and the subsequent evacuation of Afyonkarahisar.
The order was not received by the Greek 1st division, whose telephone contact with the A’ Corps had been cut and couldn’t establish wireless communication, and remained in position. By 1330 hours its front was collapsing exposing the flank of the 4th division. The 1st division, together with the 7th division retreated without being seriously harassed by the Turks, and by 1700 hours they had reached their new positions.
Greek retreat towards Dumlupinar and Alıören (27–29 August 1922)
Greek soldiers on 29 August, west of Afyon
The commander of the 1st Greek division, Major General Frangou, received contact with the A’ Corps at 1830 hours, via messengers. However he was only informally informed, and received no written orders. Frangou ordered his forces (1st and 7th divisions and other smaller units, henceforth referred to as “Frangou Group”) to withdraw towards Dumlupinar in the night from 27 to 28 August, assuming this was the plan of A’ Corps commander Major General Trikoupis. In fact Trikoupis had kept his forces (the biggest part of A’ and B’ Corps, henceforth referred as “Trikoupis Group”) in position, allowing his men to rest in the night, and preparing fot the withdrawal towards Dumlupinar in the next morning of 28 August (Day 3 of the Turkish offensive). The result of this confusion was that a gap opened in the Greek line between Frangou and Trikoupis Groups. The forces of Frangou Group marching in the night withdraw towards Dumlupinar, but in poor order, while desertions began.
The Army HQ in Izmir was losing touch with the situation. In its orders at 1730 hours on 27 August, it ordered the A’ Corps to counterattack and restore its original line, or if unable, to conduct a fighting withdrawal, while the B’ Corps would counterattck immediately towards Çobanlar (southeast of Afyon). Similarly the A’ Corps with no communication with Frangou Group was not aware that Frangou Group was moving on its own, and gave orders that did not correspond to the actual situation on the field. At 0200 hours on 28 August the Army of Asia Minor HQ cancelled the previous orders for counterattack, and placed the B’ Corps as well as a division from the C’ Corps under the A’ Corps and Major General Trikoupis.
At 0500 hours on 28 August Trikoupis Group began its movement to the west. Unaware of the absence of Fragou Group’s units, the Greek 4th division’s exposed column was attacked at 0700 and taken by surprise, and subsequently broken. The Greek 9th division (so far uncommitted to battle), on its way to the west at about 0700 trapped the Turkish 2nd Cavalry division (of the V Turkish Cavalry Corps), which tried to block the way to the west, and inflicted heavy casualties on it, including prisoners and artillery pieces. Subsequently the 2nd Cavalry division was withdrawn from action and was put in reserve. The rest of Trikoupis Group (5th, 12th and 13th divisions) retreated to the west without problems. Trikoupis Group spent the night of 28–29 August around Olucak.
At the same time the Frangou Group was under pressure by the incoming Turkish IV Corps. Frangou’s units were deployed in line around Başkimse. After repeated failed efforts to establish wireless communication with the Greek A’ Corps Frangou ordered his units to begin their withdrawal to Dumlupinar position at 1600 hours. At 0500 hours on 29 August all units of Frangou Group had reached the positions around Dumupinar, in good order despite the pressure of the Turkish IV corps.
The battle of Hamurköy-İlbulak Dağ (29 August 1922)
During the night of 28–29 August the Turkish VI Corps (of the Second Army) had advanced to the west and reached the north of Trikoupis Group. The Turkish V Cavalry Corps and the First Army’s units (I, II and IV Corps) advanced towards the Greek Frangou and Trikoupis Groups. The Turkish I Corps advanced towards Dumlupinar and made contact with the Greek Frangou Group, while the V Cavalry Corps and the IV Corps separated the Greek Trikoupis and Frangou Group. Trikoupis Group was effectively encircled.
Trikoupis Group began its movement westwards on the morning of 29 August. Progressively and unexpectedly Greek units started running into the units of the Turkish V and IV Corps. Trikoupis ordered his 9th division to attack and break the Turkish line, in order to open the way to Dumlupinar. Quickly the Greek 9th division found itself attacking against superior Turkish forces (the 4th Corps) and fell into defense. The Turkish forces attacked also of the eastern flank of Trikoupis Group where the Greek 12th position was. Trikoupis progressively committed the 5th and 4th divisions in the defense of his Group, while keeping the 13th division in reserve. The battle lasted all day on 29 August, with heavy casualties on both sides. Trikoupis Group had been unable to open the way to Dumupinar or establish communication with Frangou Group. The Turkish forces had similarly been unable to destroy the Trikoupis Group, despite having encircled it with their II, IV, V and VI Corps.
At 2300 on 29 August, the badly battered Greek units of Trikoupis Group, disengaged and began marching towards Çalköy, which was thought to be weakly held by Turkish forces. The Greek units had already lost much of their cohesion, and the night march aggravated the mixing of units. The Greek 5th division lost its way and lost contact with the Trikoupis Group.
The Frangou Group on the 29 August held a 20 km front around Dumlupinar. Its position was attacked by the Turkish 1st Corps and the right flank was broken with little fight. In order to leave open a window of hope to the Trikoupis Group to retreat towards Dumupinar, Frangou ordered his left flank to hold positions at any cost.
The battle of Alıören (30 August 1922)
POW Greek generals at the KırşehirPOW camp: from left to right; General Dimaras (commander of 4th Division), General Trikoupis (commander of I Corps), Staff Colonel Adnan or Kemaleddin Sami, General Digenis (commander of II Corps) and Lieutenant Emin.
Commanders of Turkish Army, from left to right: Mirliva Âsım (Gündüz), Mirliva Ali Hikmet (Ayerdem), Ferik Ali Sait (Akbaytogan), Mirliva Şükrü Naili (Gökberk), Mirliva Kazım (İnanç), FerikFahrettin (Altay), Mirliva Kemalettin Sami (Gökçen), Mirliva Cafer Tayyar (Eğilmez), Mirliva İzzettin (Çalışlar)
In the morning of 30 August, after breaking the weak Turkish force blocking the way, the Trikoupis Group arrived in Çalköy, where after 0700 it began taking fire from Turkish artillery. Turkish columns (the IV, V and VI Corps) were visible marching both south and north of Trikoupis Group. Trikoupis made a council with the commanders of his divisions, who proposed that the Group continue its westward march through Alıören to Banaz. Trikoupis rejected this opinion, and ordered his forces to continue south to Dumlupinar.
At 1100 hours Trikoupis received the reports from his units, which indicated that the combatant strength of Trikoupis Group was reduced to 7,000 infantry, 80 cavalry and 116 artillery pieces. An additional 10,000–15,000 men were completely disorganised and largely unarmed. Food supplies had already been completely exhausted and ammunition stocks were very low.
After receiving the reports from his subortinate units Trikoupis, realising that his forces were insufficient to withstand a Turkish attack, changed his mind and ordered continuation of the march to Alıören and then Banaz. Even though the road to Alıören was open, Trikoupis had lost invaluable time before ordering the continuation of the march to the west. The Turkish forces had covered much of the northern and southern flank of Trikoupis Group.
At 1330 hours the marching Greek column found the road to Alıören blocked by Turkish cavalry of the 14th Turkish Cavalry division. Trikoupis ordered his forces to attack and break the Turkish force. A Greek regiment pushed back the Turkish cavalry back but new Turkish reinforcements arrived. It became evident that Trikoupis Group could not avoid a general engament. Trikoupis ordered his divisions to deploy and defend until darkness arrived, when the march would resume.
By 1600 hours the Turkish artillery became particularly effective, inflicting heavy casualties to the densely concentrated Greek forces. The Turkish IV Corps exercised heavy pressure from the east and south while the VI Corps attacked from the north. The situation for the Greek units became critical. At dusk the Greek western flank was broken. Large numbers of non-combatants fled to the west. At 2030 Trikoupis ordered the remnants of his Group to resume the march to the west. All heavy wagons, field artillery and wounded men unable to march were abandoned. (About 2,000 dead Greeks were counted by the Turks the next day in the battlefield.) The Trikoupis Group had greatly disintegrated. Its men were completely exhausted, and many were collapsing.
Trikoupis Group was divided in three columns which tried to march to the west. A column of 1,700 men (mainly form the Greek 12th division) surrendered at 2000 hours on 1 September to Turkish cavalry units. Trikoupis’ column, together with 4,600 of his men eventually surrendered to the Turkish forces at 1700 hours on 2 September. A column of 5,000 men managed to escape the Turkish ring, but had lost any combat value.
On 30 August Frangou Group was also attacked, by the Turkish I Corps. Frangou Group held its positions all day, but at 2330 its left flank was breached. Frangou ordered his forces to retreat towards Banaz. Thus the battle for Dumlupinar came to an end, and the Greeks began a fighting retreat west, which did not end until they left Asia Minor.
**Information above is reflected from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dumlup%C4%B1nar
The Republic Day of Turkey is one of the most important days for commemorating the proclamation of the republic in 1923. The afternoon of previous day is also observed as a holiday.
In 29 October 1923 Atatürk declared that Turkey would be a republic and renamed it as the Republic of Turkey.
Turkey had effectively been a republic from April 23rd, 1920 (the establishment of Grand National Assembly of Turkey) but official recognition of this came only 3 years later. On 29 October 1923, the new name of the nation and its status as a republic was declared. After that, a vote occurred in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and Ataturk was selected as the 1st president of the Turkish Republic by unanimous vote.
Since then, every year on October 29th is celebrated as Republic Day in Turkey.
In October 1938, Atatürk was dining with friends on the presidential yacht, Savarona, when he was taken ill. He was conveyed to the nearby Dolmabahçe Palace, where he eventually died, on Nov. 10. Since then, every clock in the palace has been stopped at 9:05, the precise moment of his death, as recorded rather movingly in pencil on the desk diary of Celal Bayar, later the country’s third president, which is on display in the Second Congress Building in Ankara. Visitors to İstanbul can usually see the Savarona moored between Ortaköy and Kuruçeşme, while every tour of Dolmabahçe Palace now includes a visit to the room in which Atatürk died and where his unexpectedly narrow bed is draped with the Turkish flag.
Final resting place
Atatürk’s body was conveyed to Ankara, where it initially lay in state in the building that now houses the Ethnography Museum, near the Opera House that had been one of his favorite refuges. Here visitors can inspect a collection of photographs of the crowds that gathered to mourn as the coffin passed by. In 1941 an international competition to design a more suitable final resting place for the father of the Turks was won by Emin Onat and Orhan Arda.
Their masterpiece, the Anıt Kabir in Ankara, is now one of Turkey’s most visited sites, with virtually every Turk at some time in their life walking along the path lined by imitation Hittite lions that leads to the vast memorial. The heavily guarded marble cenotaph above Atatürk’s actual tomb is very much the centerpiece, although there’s also a small museum where you can find out more about the life and times of this most important of all Turks.